Daisuke Ito, Tetsushi Ueta, Kazuyuki Aihara, Bifurcation analysis of eight coupled degenerate optical parametric oscillators, Elsevier, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Vol.372, 22-30, June 2018.
Abstract: A degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO) network realized as a coherent Ising machine can be used to solve combinatorial optimization problems. Both theoretical and experimental investigations into the performance of DOPO networks have been presented previously. However a problem remains, namely that the dynamics of the DOPO network itself can lower the search success rates of globally optimal solutions for Ising problems. This paper shows that the problem is caused by pitchfork bifurcations due to the symmetry structure of coupled DOPOs. Some two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of equilibrium points express the performance deterioration. It is shown that the emergence of non-ground states regarding local minima hampers the system from reaching the ground states corresponding to the global minimum. We then describe a parametric strategy for leading a system to the ground state by actively utilizing the bifurcation phenomena. By adjusting the parameters to break particular symmetry, we find appropriate parameter sets that allow the coherent Ising machine to obtain the globally optimal solution alone.